Prix Nobel

Les prix Nobel récompensent chaque année des travaux majeurs dans les différentes disciplines scientifiques. Les prix Nobel sont attribués en fonction de l’impact scientifique et éventuellement sociétal des découvertes. Ils sont ainsi un indicateur important de la vitalité et de l’importance de différent champs scientifiques.

Ici nous proposons un résumé de quelques prix Nobels dans les thématiques les plus directement associées aux domaines d’activité de l’Institut NEEL, qui sont la physique et la chimie.

Liens

2015 Nobel prize in Physics — Oscillation of the nature of neutrinos

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita in Japan and Arthur B. McDonald in Canada, for their key contributions to the experiments which demonstrated that neutrinos change nature over time in an oscillatory fashion

2014 Nobel prize in Physics — The invention of efficient blue LEDs

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 was awarded jointly to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".

2013 Nobel prize in Physics — The theoretical discovery of the Higgs boson

F. Englert (BE) and P. W. Higgs (UK) shared the 2013 Nobel prize "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider"

2012 Nobel prize in Physics — Measuring and manipulating individual quantum systems

D. J. Wineland (US) and S. Haroche (FR) shared the 2012 Nobel prize "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems". Several research groups at Institut NEEL are working on solid-state analogues of these pioneering experiments.

2011 Nobel prize in Physics — Discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 was divided, one half awarded to Saul Perlmutter, the other half jointly to Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess. The acceleration is thought to be driven by dark energy, but what that dark energy is remains an enigma. Institut NEEL develops advanced instrumentation for space and astrophysics.

2011 Nobel prize in Chemistry — Discovery of quasicrystals

In 1982, the first diffraction image with five-fold symmetry was obtained by Dan Shechtman using electron microscopy. This five-fold symmetry was considered at that time impossible.

2010 Nobel prize in Physics — Two-dimensional material graphene

Prix décerné conjointement à Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov pour des expérience pionnières sur le graphène, un matériau bidimensionnel

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